Engaging a wild animal in some simple shaping procedure can give you a startling glimpse of what might be called species temperament—of how not only that individual but that species tends to tackle the challenges in its environment. Teaching training to my class of keepers at the National Zoo, I used a number of different species as demonstration animals. I stood on my side of the fence, using a whistle as conditioned reinforcer, and tossing in food; the animals moved about freely on their side. The polar bears turned out to be immensely persistent and dogged. One bear which accidentally got reinforced while sitting still took to offering “sitting still” as a response; slavering hopefully, eyes glued to the trainer, it could sit still for half an hour or more, hoping for reinforcement. It seems possible that in an animal which stalks seals on ice floes for a living, this kind of tenacity and patience has important survival value.

Species temperament shows up in many, many species in a shaping session. When I inadvertently failed to reinforce a hyena, instead of getting mad or quitting, it turned on the charm, sitting down in front of me, grinning and chuckling like a fur-covered Johnny Carson. In shaping a wolf to go around a bush in its yard, I made the same mistake, failing to reinforce it when I should have; the wolf looked over its shoulder, made eye contact with a long, thoughtful stare, then ran on, right around the bush, earning all the kibble I had in my pocket; it had sized up the situation, perhaps deciding that I was still in the game since I was still watching, and it had taken a chance and guessed at what would work.

Sometimes the animals understand reinforcement perfectly. Melanie Bond, in charge of the National Zoo’s great apes, had started reinforcing Ham, the chimpanzee, for various behaviors. One morning he was accumulating his food rather than eating it, with the intention, Melanie supposed, of eating outdoors. When Ham saw that at last Melanie was going over to open the door and let him outside, he knew what to do: He handed her a stalk of celery.



Do you ever ‘wtf white people’ even though you are a white people.


Let’s be real, we all know Christine proposes to Raoul.





Phantom AU where everything is the same, but once Raoul finds out how tall Erik is he invests in a pair of these babies to try and compensate:


"Insolent boy, this slave of good goD WHAT THE FUCK IS THAT


"please leave your shoes at the door"

Except the shoes are his pants……

oh dear.


hey sorry im late i didnt want to come



  • driving: age 16
  • smoking, sex: 18
  • drinking: 21
  • LSD: 24
  • run for senate: 30
  • super-LSD: 35
  • over the hill: 40
  • hyper-LSD: 70
  • dire mage: 95
  • lichdom: 140
  • act against god: 400
  • space cloud consciousness: 10000



you know what really gets my goat?

el chupacabra






My roommate and I are really sick and we look like shit, but we were hungry so we ordered pizza.
But we didn’t want anyone to see us, so we asked them over the phone if we can leave the money on the door and they can just drop off the pizza.

The guy said sure.

So we decided to leave a nice little note


and we hung it above the door bell. I hope they like it!




pizza cares

Pizza understands

pizza spelt its own name wrong